Even causality itself can be the subject of complexity-formation.

We have seen in this chapter how, starting from the random actions of energy and how those random actions can become organized, it is possible to arrive at the formation of features and their relationships as described in scientific laws. It is also possible to see setups arranged in a way that creates potential and the logic of what can happen because of those arrangements. However, now I want to add that it is further possible to start with the random actions of energy and arrive at causality itself, in what I call “assembled causality.”

An example is the steam engine and how the random actions of the molecules of steam under pressure can escape a boiler through a hole and, by impinging on a gear, constitute a directed force driving that gear. The random actions continue to be random but have become assembled by circumstances into a Newtonian-style force. (And later we will see how, in a similar fashion, it is possible to see the random actions of quantum mechanics assembled by circumstances into other Newtonian phenomena).

Thus we can see emerging the beginnings of the worldview of energyism, that we can start with the random actions of energy and see them organized into features, their relationships, and now also see them organized into forces themselves.

That is instead of a worldview starting with the assumption that the world is based on Platonic Forms or fundamental units (atoms) following laws or instead of seeing it only as matter and causation (bits of matter bumping into other bits of matter).

The Energyists contains an entire chapter on examples of assembled causality in nature.

And note what that does to notions of one event leading inexorably to another in an infinite causal chain. When Newtonian actions are ultimately derived from random actions, then looking back at what caused an event eventually runs into randomness, not inexorability. (The randomness shows how things could have been otherwise). And likewise with determinism. When each “atom” is individually acting randomly (and only together with other atoms does it constitute a force), each is not being “governed” or “directed” by a law.